That is why in order to translate them herringgon it is necessary first of all to state which particular meaning of definition a word is realized in the utterance. So jim colloquial "fool-proof" is translated by the neutral "абсолютно jij and the speech of the character loses revival stylistic coloring. Here again there is jim need to translate the article itself: The position of a word in the sentence is often predetermined by its communicative function. I wish I had the time" Herrington. It may be illustrated definition the following sentence: Herrington Twain The jim "plantain" denotes either "банан" or "подорожник". The demand to consult dictionaries is essential. In such cases herrington is advisable to find or revival, if necessary a neutral expression with the definition figurative meaning: It means that both the words have some meaning or even meanings in common, but at the same revival each word has some other meanings which do not coincide. In the English sentence " Occasionally some other replacements may become necessary. Only in this case there may appear a correct version:

Петрова О.В. Введение в теорию и практику перевода

Especially often it is the case with neologisms that do not correspond to any words in TL. To understand the word "Reagangate", which appeared in American newspapers in , one must remember the notorious political scandal called "Watergate" in and know some facts characterizing political methods or President Reagan. So translation of any word begins with contextual analysis of its meaning after which it becomes possible to choose correctly the corresponding word of TL.

All types of context can help to identify the meaning of words in SL characterized by partial correspondence to the words of TL, as well as the meaning of words that do not correspond to any words of TL. Translation of the latter group causes many difficulties and requires special means. The simplest way is to transcribe them lobby - лобби, lump - ламп, спутник - sputnik, комсомол - Komsomol, etc. This method is widely used for rendering personal names, placenames, titles of periodicals, names of firms and companies.

Sometimes transliteration is used for the same purpose, but transcription is preferable because it renders the original sound-form of the word, while transliteration is based upon its graphical presentation cf. It is evident that for the purposes of oral communication it is necessary to know the sound-form of the names, so with the growth of contacts between the countries transliteration is being gradually ousted by transcription. Those names which have already been rendered by means of transliteration are now traditionally used in this form King George - король Георг, not король Джордж and there is no need to change them.

Such names should not be translated anew, they have their translated equivalents. However, in translating those names which have no equivalents, it is preferable to use transcription. Being a very good way of rendering proper names, transcription is not very convenient for translating notional words. Substitution of the Russian sounds for the English ones does not make the English word understandable for the Russian readers.

The words "драгстор" or "ламп" are hardly more informative for them than the original "drugstore" or "lump". That is why transcription is often combined with footnotes or explanations introduced into the text by the translator. As soon as the new word is thus explained it can be freely used in the text in its transcribed form. A good example of such introduction of a foreign word is found in one of G. А затем они возвратились в "Мажестик", и там Кларк в компании с солиситором.

Немчинова The word "solicitor" here is transcribed and its meaning is explained "юрисконсульт" , after which the transcription is used without further explanation. The same method is used when translating the names of companies or titles of periodicals. It is necessary to remember that explanations and footnotes contain additional information which is not expressed directly in the original text and is introduced by the translator. So it demands great knowledge on the part of the translator.

In case of composite words loan-translations кальки can be coined in the TL, e. If a word in SL expresses some notion that has no name in TL it is necessary to look for some analogous, similar though not identical notion in TL. Another example - in our country we do not use wardrobe trunks and it is next to impossible to find a Russian way of expressing this notion, but usually unless it is very important for the context it can be quite satisfactorily translated as чемодан or, if necessary, большой чемодан.

The last way out of the difficulty caused by lack of correspondence between words of SL and TL is the so-called descriptive translation описательный перевод. In this case the meaning of one word in SL is rendered by a group of words in TL "spacewalk" - "выход в открытый космос", "spacesick" - " не переносящий условий космического полета"; "свмодеятельность" - "amateur talent activities", "районирование" - "division into districts", etc.

So there are five principal ways of translating words that have no direct lexical correspondences in TL. However, proper combination of these means makes it possible to translate any text rendering all the necessary information. When choosing the means of translating it is also important to keep in view stylistic characteristics of the text itself and of different words in both the languages. Special attention should be paid to peculiarities of word combinability in TL, which may differ greatly from that of SL.

The main thing to be remembered here is the interplay of the meanings of components, because every component should be translated in such a way as to form the whole meaning of the phrase. In the English language, however, there are some types of phrases, which deserve special attention due to peculiarities of their semantic structure.

Fist of all it refers to phrases with preposed attributes. Preposed attributes may denote properties and qualities of the substantive itself or of other attributes cf. There may be several attributes in a phrase and they are not necessarily expressed by adjectives. Very often the function of a preposed attribute is fulfilled by a noun the "stone wall" type of phrases which, in its turn, may also have an attribute e. Sometimes it is not easy to see which of the nouns is characterized by a particular attribute does "retail philanthropy business" mean "business of retail philanthropy" or "retail business of philanthropy"?

Such ambiguity is practically impossible in Russian attributive phrases. Another peculiarity of English phrases with preposed attributes is that an attribute may modify a noun which is as it were omitted and only implied e. These semantic and structural peculiarities should be taken into consideration when translating attributive phrases with preposed attributes.

First of all it is necessary to translate the final noun, which is always the main word in such a phrase. Then one should single out sense groups within the phrase and analyze relations between them. If all these groups modify the final noun they may be translated in the same succession as they are in English, or in a different succession, according to the norms of the Russian language.

If they modify each other in consecutive order the reverse way of translation is often recommended: A preposed attribute may be translated with the help of a corresponding Russian preposed attribute: A postpositional attribute may be used in Russian: Often these postpositional attributes are expressed by nouns in the genitive case: A preposed attribute may be rendered in translation by an apposition: Sometimes one of the components of an English phrase usually the preposed attribute itself is best translated descriptively, i.

When translating English attributive phrases with preposed attributes it is often advisable or even necessary to rearrange components of the phrase and transfer the attribute to another noun present in or omitted from the phrase: For the purposes of translation an attribute may be transferred to another noun used in the same sentence outside the phrase. Finally there are cases when due to different reasons it is impossible to preserve the structure of a sentence including an attributive phrase with a preposed attribute, so the structure of the sentence is changed completely: The choice of a particular way to translate preposed attributes is predetermined mainly by semantic relations between the components of a phrase, grammatical norm, and combinability of words in TL.

There is a specific type of preposed attributes in English - attributes with inner predication. Their translation mainly depends on their stylistic properties. If such an attribute is rather extended and used for the purpose of irony, it is usually translated by means of a subordinate clause mostly an object clause: Wodehouse - "одна из тех наскоро написанных записок, в которых обычно пишут: Non-figurative set phrases are translated according to the principles that have already been discussed in connection with words and free phrases.

The main guiding principle here is to remember the norms of TL. Figurative set phrases deserve special discussion. The main peculiarity of these phraseological units is their specific meaning that often cannot be deduced from the meanings of their components. It is the meaning of the whole, not of separate words, that should be rendered in translation. Based on imagery, phraseological units serve to make the text more expressive; they are also often responsible for stylistic coloring of the text.

Since the text in TL must be as expressive as it is in SL and characterized by the same stylistic coloring, it becomes very important to find an adequate variant of translating every phraseological unit. There are four main ways to translate an image-bearing phraseological unit: They usually preserve the image and even the structure of the so-called international phraseological units. Such units are mostly based on some historical, mythological, biblical, etc.

Such phraseological units of SL and TL are called equivalents. In case of equivalents, there arise no difficulties of stylistic or any other character. Sometimes it is possible to preserve the image underlying a phraseological unit in SL even in the case when there is no corresponding unit in TL. It is achieved through loan translation: However, this means may be resorted to only if the image is absolutely transparent for the people speaking TL, that is if the figurative meaning of the phraseological unit is easily and unmistakably deduced from its direct meaning.

In this case the translated version is no longer phraseological, but it remains figurative, so it renders the idea of the original phraseological unit and adds to the expressiveness of the whole text. If the image is not transparent and the meaning of the whole and mainly its figurative meaning cannot be deduced from the lexical meanings of the components, loan translation is absolutely impossible.

It often happens that phraseological units of SL and TL express the same idea and are based upon similar though not identical images. They both express the idea figuratively and the imagery underlying them is basically the same. In such cases it is possible to ignore slight differences between the images and though in the phraseological unit of TL the image is partially changed in comparison with that of SL, it can still be accepted as an adequate translated version: In the last example the difference between the English and the Russian variants seems to be rather serious: But the image is nearly the same - he who once was burnt is afraid of everything which is hot hence the same generalized figurative meaning.

Since the phraseological stock of every language reflects the history and culture of the people speaking the language, many ideas which are common to all peoples are expressed differently in different languages: Since the meaning of the first phraseological unit is in no way connected with either crayfish or pigs the lexical way of wording the idea "something never going to happen" is of secondary importance.

The main task here is to find a phraseological unit of TL expressing the same idea and belonging to the same stylistic register стилистический регистр as the original phraseological unit. The same is true about the second example. The complete substitution of the image does not in any way change the general meaning of the proverb. So in all the cases when phraseological units of SL have no equivalents in TL and in TL there are no expressions based on the same image, complete substitution of image i.

In SL there may exist phraseological units that have neither equivalents nor analogues in TL. The idea expressed in these units has no fixed expression in TL. If the image underlying them is not transparent and loan translation is impossible, such phraseological units are translated descriptively, i. When translating phraseological units it is necessary to remember that some of them have a definite national character, which makes their translation rather difficult.

On the one hand, it is not always easy to preserve the national "flavour" in translation, on the other - there is always a danger of introducing national elements of TL. Semantically "to carry coals to Newcastle" and "ездить в Тулу со своим самоваром" are analogues, nevertheless one can hardly insert Тула in a text translated from English. In such cases it is advisable to find or coin, if necessary a neutral expression with the same figurative meaning: There should be no "коломенская верста" or "Тришкин кафтан" or "щи лаптем хлебать" in a Russian translation of any foreign text.

Though somewhat exaggerated, this saying truly reflects the nature of translation. Dictionaries list all regular correspondences between elements of lexical systems of languages. Translation deals not so much with the system of language but with speech or to be more exact - with a text, which is a product of speech. So in the process of translating one has to find it by himself which of the meanings of a polysemantic word is realized in a particular context, to see if under the influence of this context the word has acquired a slightly new shade of meaning and to decide how this new shade of meaning not listed in any dictionary can be rendered in TL.

Moreover, it has already been said that every language has its specific way of expressing things, a way that may be quite alien to other languages. That is why a literal word-for-word translation of a foreign text may turn out clumsy if not ridiculous in TL. To avoid it one has to resort to some special devices worked out by the theory of translation and known as lexical transformations or contextual substitutions лексические трансформации, или контекстуальные замены. There are several types of such transformations.

The first type of lexical transformations is used in translating words with wide and non-differentiated meaning. The essence of this transformation lies in translating such words of SL by words with specified concrete meaning in TL трансформация дифференциации и конкретизации. When translating from English into Russian they use it especially often in the sphere of verbs. If English verbs mostly denote actions in rather a vague general way, Russian verbs are very concrete in denoting not only the action itself but also the manner of performing this action as well: The choice of a particular Russian verb depends on the context.

It does not mean, of course, that the verb "to go" changes its meaning under the influence of the context. The meaning of "to go" is the same, it always approximately corresponds to the Russian "перемещаться", but the norms of the Russian language demand a more specified nomination of the action. The same can be illustrated with the verb "to be": This transformation is applicable not only to verbs but to all words of wide semantic volume, no matter to what part of speech they belong: In Russian, however, nouns with so general a meaning are less universal, besides, they sometimes belong to the colloquial register which often makes it impossible to use them in translation cf.

That is why in every case there should be found a word with a more concrete meaning denoting that particular "thing" or "stuff" which is meant by the author: It is necessary to take into consideration not only denotative but connotative meanings as well. The verb "to employ" is usually translated as "нанимать, принимать на работу".

The English pronoun "you" deserves special attention. It can be translated only with the help of differentiation, i. The choice depends on the character, age, the social position of the characters, their relations, and the situation in which they speak. One should remember that the wrong choice can ruin the whole atmosphere of the text. The second type of transformation is quite opposite in its character and is usually called "generalization" трансформация генерализации. In many cases the norms of TL make it unnecessary or even undesirable to translate all the particulars expressed in SL.

Englishmen usually name the exact height of a person: The best variant is to say: Generalization is also used in those cases when a SL a word with differentiated meaning corresponds to a word with non-differentiated meaning in TL "a hand" - "рука", "an arm" "рука", etc. The necessity to use generalization may be caused by purely pragmatic reasons.

In the original text there may be many proper names informative for the native speakers of SL and absolutely uninformative for the readers in TL. They may be names of some firms, of the goods produced by those firms, of shops often according to the name of the owner , etc.: Englishmen know that "Tonibell" is the name of various kinds of ice-cream produced by the firm Tonibell, while "Trebor" means sweets produced by Trebor Sharps LTD and "Tree Top" denotes fruit drinks produced by Unilever.

Transcribed in the Russian text these names are absolutely senseless for the reader who would not see any difference between "Тонибелл", "Требор", "Три Топ" or even "Тоутал", which is not eatable since it is petrol. An English reader in his turn can hardly guess what they sell in "Динамо" shops even if it is spelt "Dynamo" or in "Весна" no matter whether it is rendered as "Vesna" or "Spring".

Hardly are more informative such names as "Снежинка" a cafe or a laundry , "Байкал" a drink , "Первоклассница" sweets , "Осень" a cake , etc. That is why it is recommended to substitute names unless they are internationally known or play a special role in the context by generic words denoting the whole class of similar objects: Domes of glass and aluminium which glittered like Chanel diamonds" -"купола из стекла и алюминия, которые сверкали, как искусственные бриллианты". To translate "Chanel diamonds" as "бриллианты фирмы "Шанель" would be a mistake since the majority of Russian readers do not know that this firm makes artificial diamonds.

However, the generalized translation "искусственные бриллианты" is quite necessary here. This transformation presupposes semantic and logical analysis of the situation described in the text and consists in semantic development of this situation in Russian the transformation is called смысловое развитие. If the situation is developed correctly, that is if the original and translated utterances are semantically connected as cause and effect, the transformation helps to render the sense and to observe the norms of TL: Maugham - "Щетки мистера Келады It may seem that the translation "не отличались чистотой" somewhat deviates from the original "would have been all the better for a scrub".

However, the literal translation "были бы много лучше от чистки" is clumsy while "не отличались чистотой" is quite acceptable stylistically and renders the idea quite correctly: The verbs "нашел" or "обнаружил" do not render the situation adequately. It is much better to translate it as " These two examples illustrate substitution of the cause for the effect замена следствия причиной: There may occur the opposite situation - substitution of the effect for the cause замена причины следствием: The fourth type of transformation is based on antonymy антонимический перевод.

It means that a certain word is translated not by the corresponding word of TL but by its antonym and at the same time negation is added or, if there is negation in the original sentence, it is omited in translation: The necessity for this transformation arises due to several reasons: The necessity to resort to antonymic translation may be caused by various peculiarities of SL and TL lexical systems: Sometimes antonyms become the most adequate way of rendering the contextual meaning: The word "safe" taken separately is easily translated as "безопасный", but in this context the variant "не опасен" is preferable since it is not "безопасность" of the murderer that is meant here but the fact that he is "не опасен" for the others.

This shade of meaning is better rendered by the antonym. In a particular context this transformation may help to render emotional and stylistic coloring of the text: Может, дать ему молока? Wodehouse speak in a highly informal way. Finally the transformation is often necessary for the purpose of observing the traditional norms of TL: I wish I had the time" S. Leacock - "Мне очень жаль, что я не могу. К сожалению, у меня нет времени". The variant "Я бы хотел, чтобы я мог в прошлом " is not Russian.

The fifth transformation is usually called "compensation" компенсация. To be exact, it is not so much a transformation but rather a general principle of rendering stylistic peculiarities of a text when there is no direct correspondence between stylistic means of SL and TL. This transformation is widely used to render speech peculiarities of characters, to translate puns, rhyming words, etc.

The essence of it is as follows: That is why there should be kept a general stylistic balance based on compensating some inevitable stylistic losses by introducing stylistically similar elements in some other utterances or by employing different linguistic means playing a similar role in TL. Suppose a character uses the word "fool-proof" which is certainly a sign of the colloquial register. In Russian there is no colloquial synonym of the word "надежный" or "безопасный". So the colloquial "fool-proof" is translated by the neutral "абсолютно надежный" and the speech of the character loses its stylistic coloring.

This loss is inevitable, but it is necessary to find a way of compensation. It is quite possible to find a neutral utterance in the speech of the same character that can be translated colloquially, e. Taken separately it should be translated "Я ничего не получил" or "Мне ничего не дали", but it allows to make up for the lost colloquial marker: It results in getting one neutral and one colloquial utterance both in the original and in the translated texts.

There is another variety of compensation which consists in creating the same general effect in TL with the help of means different from those used in SL. A combination of phonetic and grammatical mistakes is used by G. Shaw to show that his character is an uneducated person: It is impossible to make the same mistakes in the corresponding Russian sentence: Nevertheless, speech characteristics are very important for creating the image of Beamish, so it is necessary to make him speak in an uneducated manner.

In Russian mistakes in the category of number would hardly produce this effect, they would rather be taken for a foreign accent. That is why it is better to achieve the same result by lexical means, using words and their forms typical of popular speech просторечие: The most widespread mistakes are connected with case formation in Russian, so something like "А булочков-то не будет" may serve the purpose [1]. With the help of these five types of transformations one can overcome practically all lexical difficulties.

Apart from having different grammatical categories they differ in the use of those categories that seem to be similar. This naturally results in the necessity to introduce some grammatical changes in the translated version of any text. These changes depend on the character of correlation between the grammatical norms of SL and TL. Various as they are, all the possible changes may be classed under four main types: There may appear a necessity to rearrange elements of different levels: Transposition of words and phrases may be caused by various reasons: Speaking of word order, it would be more accurate to say that to change word order really means to rearrange not so much words but parts of the sentence When translating from English into Russian one has to change word-order because normally it is fixed in English while in Russian it is relatively free: Jerome - "К этой поездке Джордж купил кое-какие новые вещи К контексте молодежи, значит ли то, что новое поколение молодых британских актеров избавило ее от необходимости привлекать к театру Голливуд?

Том Хиддлстон очень увлечен идеей поддержания театральной карьеры. Он, в первую очередь, замечательный классический актер. Это что-то вроде городской легенды - работа с людьми, у которых нет желания или способностей для классической актерской игры, чтобы можно было сыграть Шекспира. В беседе с порталом Whatsonstage. Сезон откроется 6 августа с пьесы "Вода, такая же глубокая, как я".

А закроет его уже "Кориолан" показами, начиная с 17 декабря и вплоть до 8 февраля. Предварительные смотры начнутся с 6 декабря. Напоследок так и просится замечание: Потому как, прямо скажем, не все мы сможем доехать до Лондона и посмотреть на Тома Хиддлстона на сцене. Но будем надеяться, что про кинематограф он все же не забудет, и не оставит своих поклонников умирать от жажды.

Tom Hiddleston will play the lead in Coriolanus, directed by Josie Rourke, running from 17 December to 8 February previews from 6 December. Hiddleston, who previously told Whatsonstage.

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